American Indian Education Resources: An Annotated Bibliography

American Indian Education Resources: An Annotated Bibliography

1. AIHEC (American Indian Higher Education Consortium).  The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) provides research on tribal colleges and universities. The "Research" portion of the Web site is most useful for locating learning research.

2. Alaska Native Knowledge Network. [Online]. Alaska Federation of Natives, University of Alaska, National Science Foundation, Rural School & Community Trust. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from  The Alaska Native Knowledge Network seeks to maintain the indigenous culture while providing information for the improvement of cultural learning and educational practices for Alaskan native students.

3. American Indians and Alaska Natives. [Online]. ERIC: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved April 10, 2002 from  Good source for finding research and resources for Native American education. The ERIC digests are particularly useful and are freely available on the Web. "The Clearinghouse is part of a nationwide system of 16 clearinghouses in the Education Resources Information Center. Each clearinghouse is responsible for adding to the ERIC database education-related works on specific topics."

4. Barnhardt, Ray. (2002). Teaching/learning across cultures: strategies for success. Alaska Native Knowledge Network. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from  This article reports that learning is improved when educators are aware of the indigenous worldview and incorporate such knowledge into the curriculum. Furthermore, Barnhardt suggests that ways of determining what has been learned should be altered as well.

5. Bobiwash, A. Rodney. (1999). Long term strategies for institutional change in universities and colleges: facilitating native people negotiating a middle ground.  This article depicts the ideal learning environment in higher education for Native students. The author calls for higher education institutions to open their doors to the Indian population by striving to harmonize nontraditional academics with their Native background and worldview. "

6. Cajete, Gregory, “Look to the mountain: An ecology of Indigenous education,” Skyland,: Kivaki Press 1994 An important contribution to the body of indigenous cultural knowledge and a way to secure its continuance.

7. Demmert, Jr., William G. (2001). Improving academic performance among Native American students: a review of the research literature. [Online]. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from  Except for the tribal schools, responsibility for the education of Native children and youth has been transferred from the tribes to state agencies, mostly to administrators and other individuals outside the communities or tribes. With this transfer of responsibility, Native students began experiencing high levels of educational failure
and a growing ambivalence toward learning traditional tribal knowledge and skills. They often exhibited indifference to formal Western academic learning, as well."

8. Evans, Susan D. (2001). The potential contribution of comparative and international education to educational reform: an Examination of traditional, non-Western education. [Online]. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society (Washington, DC, March 14-17, 2001). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from  The ancient methods of education and learning are essential to the reform of modern education. The author advocates drawing paradigms from Native American cultural modes of education. The reasons for such suggestions include an emphasis on character education, integrated curriculum and lifelong learning.

9. Introduction to the DVC Learning Style Survey for College. [Online]. DVC Learning Style Survey for College. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from

10. Jacobs, Don Trent and Reyhner, Jon. (2002). Preparing teachers to support American Indian and Alaska Native student success and cultural heritage. ERIC Digest, EDO-RC-01-13. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from

11. Journal of American Indian Education, Is a professional journal that publishes papers directly related to the education of American Indian/Alaska Natives. The Journal also invites scholarship on educational issues pertaining to Native Peoples of the world.

12. Lipka, Jerry. (2002). Schooling for self-determination: research on the effects of including Native language and culture in the schools. ERIC Digest, EDO-RC-01-12. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from  This article discusses the impact of acculturation in American schools and ways in which this might be remedied

13. McKay, Michelle. (1999). Relating indigenous pedagogy to the writing process. Journal of Indigenous Thought. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from Although this article is written from a Canadian perspective, the author's intent to describe the Indigenous worldview and its role is education is valuable. The author focuses of the commonalities that exist among North American Indian nations to define the concept of "Indigenous pedagogy."

14. More, Arthur J. (1989). Native Indian learning styles: a review for researchers and teachers. Journal of American Indian Education, special ed., August 1989. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from

This article provides a clear explanation of the current theory of learning styles and the implications of such theory in educating American Indian students.

15. National Center for Education Statistics, American Indian and Alaska Native Education. (2002). Office of Educational Research & Improvement, U.S. Dept. of Education. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from  This is a good source of statistics regarding Indian Education, including statistics on tribal colleges, graduation rates, and conditions facing Indian education.

16. (2001). teaching, learning and information sharing. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from  The "Teaching and Learning" component of this cultural resource supplies the reader with current research articles in education and links to various educational institutions that serve indigenous learners.

17. Office of Indian Education (OIE) The U.S. Department of Education's Native American component provides links to statistical and educational research pertaining to indigenous education.

18. Reyhner, Jon. (2002). American Indian Education. [Online]. Northern Arizona University. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from  This is a Web site provided by a major researcher in the area of Native American education. Teacher resources are included, as well as research reports and issues that need to be addressed in further research.

19. Reyhner, Jon, Lee, Harry, & Gabbard, David. (1993). A specialized knowledge base for teaching American Indian and Alaska Native students. Tribal College Journal, 4(4). Retrieved April 15, 2002, from

This article discusses the high-risk status of Native students in education. The main arguments address the lack of cultural appropriateness of the classroom setting and the uniqueness of educating indigenous people. The authors advocate the acquisition of Native cultural knowledge of the part of the teachers of Native students in order to facilitate a culturally appropriate learning environment.

20. Roy, Loriene and Larsen, Peter. (2002). Oksale: an indigenous approach to creating a virtual library of education resources. D-Lib Magazine, 8(3). Retrieved April 21, 2002 from  Although this article details the experiences of a particular project, the first half of the article describes the indigenous approach to learning which is quite useful for educators of indigenous learners.

21 Schulz, William E. and Bravi, Gerry. (1986). Classroom learning environment in North American schools. Journal of American Indian Education, 26(1). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from

In light of the educational problems that are facing Native American educators, these authors suggest a shift in perspective in the research carried out. The lack of motivation of students is related to the kind of culture that is put forth in the education environment.

22. Swisher, Karen. (1991). American Indian/Alaskan Native learning styles: research and practice.. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. ED335175, 1991-05-00. Retrieved April 15, 2002, from  “An improved teaching style may be improved by understanding the learning styles and preferences of Native American students. Swisher discusses learning style research conducted in indigenous environments and makes suggestions to teachers about how they might incorporate such knowledge into their classroom and teaching style.”

23. Swisher, Karen. (1994). American Indian learning styles survey: an assessment of teachers knowledge. The journal of educational issues of language minority students, 13. Retrieved April 7, 2002 from

A survey of non-Indian and Indian educators, investigated the knowledge of learning styles on the part of the educators. The study also addresses how much the educators believe that cultural values of American Indians influences a student's learning style and demonstration of learning.

24. Deloria Vine Jr., and Wildcat Daniel (2001) Power and Place: Indian Education in America. American Indian Graduate Center and Fulcrum Resources, Golden, CO, This book examines the issues facing Native American students as they progress through the schools, colleges, and on into professions.

25. National Center for Education Statistics: National Indian Education Study (NIES) is administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

26. Joely Proudfit, Ph.D. and Seth San Juan, “The State of American Indian and Alaskan Native Education in California” California Indian Culture and Sovereignty Center, California State University-San Marcos, 2012 Compiles information about American Indians and Alaska Native (AIAN) people in the K–12 system in California

27. National Center for Education Statistics (2008). Statistical Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.

28. Carolyn J. Mar, Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest, The goal of Indian education from the 1880s through the 1920s was to assimilate Indian people into the melting pot of America by placing them in institutions where traditional ways could be replaced by those sanctioned by the government

29. National Indian Education Association (NIEA) The National Indian Education Association advances comprehensive educational opportunities for American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians throughout the United States,

30. National Council on American Indian Education (NCAIE) Advises the Secretary of Education concerning the funding and administration of any program, including any program established under Title VII, Part A of the ESEA, that includes Indian children or adults as participants or that may benefit Indian children or adults

31. Tribal Education Departments National Assembly (TEDNA) This membership organization for the Education Departments of American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes. The Native American Rights Fund and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Indian Education have supported the founding of TEDNA.

32. Native American Rights Fund (NARF) Founded in 1970, the Native American Rights Fund (NARF) is the oldest and largest nonprofit law firm dedicated to asserting and defending the rights of Indian tribes, organizations and individuals nationwide

32. National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Established in 1944 in response to termination and assimilation policies the US government forced upon Tribal Governments in contradiction of their treaty rights and status as sovereign nations. Protecting these inherent rights remains the primary focus of NCAI

33. The Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) Their mission is to provide quality education opportunities from early childhood through life in accordance with a tribe’s needs for cultural and economic well-being, in keeping with the wide diversity of Indian tribes and Alaska Native villages as distinct cultural and governmental entities.

34. American Indian Indigenous Education, This web site is designed to provide information, including links to related web sites, on the and current thinking about American Indian and Indigenous education.

35. Brittany Dorer and Anna Fetter, Cultivated Ground: Effective Teaching Practices for Native Students in a Public High School, Harvard University and the National Indian Education Association, This project was to assess the effective teaching practices being used in one or more superiorly performing United States public high schools that had a high number of American Indian/Alaskan Native students.

36. The State of Education for Native Students. The study outlines that progress in improving achievement among students of color, achievement results for Native students have remained nearly flat. As achievement has stagnated, the gaps separating Native students from their white peers have mostly widened.